Paranoia had a Nuclear Hand Grenade as an R&D item in one adventure once.Tales from the Floating Vagabond listed a weapon called "Nuclear Hand Grenade". I doubt it was very popular.
The listed instructions were:
1. Pull Pin
2. Throw HARD.
In the same vein, I'd also like to point out the M-28 "Davy Crockett" recoilless rifle, a tactical nuclear rocket launcher from the Cold War in the 1960's. The effective range of the rocket was significantly less than the minimum safe distance of the warhead.