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Ryan Dancey: Acquiring TSR

In the winter of 1997, I traveled to Lake Geneva Wisconsin on a secret mission. In the late fall, rumors of TSR's impending bankruptcy had created an opportunity to made a bold gamble that the business could be saved by an infusion of capital or an acquisition with a larger partner. After a hasty series of phone calls and late night strategy sessions, I found myself standing in the snow outside of 201 Sheridan Springs Road staring at a building bearing a sign that said "TSR, Incorporated".

Inside the building, I found a dead company.

In the halls that had produced the stuff of my childhood fantasies, and had fired my imagination and become unalterably intertwined with my own sense of self, I found echoes, empty desks, and the terrible depression of lost purpose.

The life story of a tree can be read by a careful examination of its rings. The life story of a corporation can be read by a careful examination of its financial records and corporate minutes.

I was granted unprecedented access to those records. I read the TSR corporate log book from the first page penned in haste by Gary Gygax to the most recent terse minutes dictated to a lawyer with no connection to hobby gaming. I was able to trace the meteoric rise of D&D as a business, the terrible failure to control costs that eventually allowed a total outsider to take control away from the founders, the slow and steady progress to rebuild the financial solvency of the company, and the sudden and dramatic failure of that business model. I read the euphoric copyright filings for the books of my lost summers: "Player's Handbook", "Fiend Folio", "Oriental Adventures". I read the contract between Gary and TSR where Gary was severed from contact with the company he had founded and the business he had nurtured and grown. I saw the clause where Gary, forced to the wall by ruthless legal tactics was reduced to insisting to the right to use his own name in future publishing endeavors, and to take and keep control of his personal D&D characters. I read the smudged photocopies produced by the original Dragonlance Team, a group of people who believed in a new idea for gaming that told a story across many different types of products. I saw concept artwork evolve from lizard men with armor to unmistakable draconians. I read Tracy Hickman's one page synopsis of the Dragonlance Story. I held the contract between Tracy and Margaret for the publication of the three Chronicles novels. I read the contract between Ed Greenwood and TSR to buy his own personal game world and transform it into the most developed game setting in history - the most detailed and explored fantasy world ever created.

And I read the details of the Random House distribution agreement; an agreement that TSR had used to support a failing business and hide the fact that TSR was rotten at the core. I read the entangling bank agreements that divided the copyright interests of the company as security against default, and realized that the desperate arrangements made to shore up the company's poor financial picture had so contaminated those rights that it might not be possible to extract Dungeons & Dragons from the clutches of lawyers and bankers and courts for years upon end. I read the severance agreements between the company and departed executives which paid them extraordinary sums for their silence. I noted the clauses, provisions, amendments and agreements that were piling up more debt by the hour in the form of interest charges, fees and penalties. I realized that the money paid in good faith by publishers and attendees for GenCon booths and entrance fees had been squandered and that the show itself could not be funded. I discovered that the cost of the products that company was making in many cases exceeded the price the company was receiving for selling those products. I toured a warehouse packed from floor to 50 foot ceiling with products valued as though they would soon be sold to a distributor with production stamps stretching back to the late 1980s. I was 10 pages in to a thick green bar report of inventory, calculating the true value of the material in that warehouse when I realized that my last 100 entries had all been "$0"'s.

I met staff members who were determined to continue to work, despite the knowledge that they might not get paid, might not even be able to get in to the building each day. I saw people who were working on the same manuscripts they'd been working on six months earlier, never knowing if they'd actually be able to produce the fruits of their labor. In the eyes of those people (many of whom I have come to know as friends and co workers), I saw defeat, desperation, and the certain knowledge that somehow, in some way, they had failed. The force of the human, personal pain in that building was nearly overwhelming - on several occasions I had to retreat to a bathroom to sit and compose myself so that my own tears would not further trouble those already tortured souls.

I ran hundreds of spreadsheets, determined to figure out what had to be done to save the company. I was convinced that if I could just move enough money from column A to column B, that everything would be ok. Surely, a company with such powerful brands and such a legacy of success could not simply cease to exist due to a few errors of judgment and a poor strategic plan?

I made several trips to TSR during the frenzied days of negotiation that resulted in the acquisition of the company by Wizards of the Coast. When I returned home from my first trip, I retreated to my home office; a place filled with bookshelves stacked with Dungeons & Dragons products. From the earliest games to the most recent campaign setting supplements - I owned, had read, and loved those products with a passion and intensity that I devoted to little else in my life. And I knew, despite my best efforts to tell myself otherwise, that the disaster I kept going back to in Wisconsin was the result of the products on those shelves.

When Peter put me in charge of the tabletop RPG business in 1998, he gave me one commission: Find out what went wrong, fix the business, save D&D. Vince also gave me a business condition that was easy to understand and quite direct. "God damnit, Dancey", he thundered at me from across the conference table: "Don't lose any more money!"

That became my core motivation. Save D&D. Don't lose money. Figure out what went wrong. Fix the problem.

Back into those financials I went. I walked again the long threads of decisions made by managers long gone; there are few roadmarks to tell us what was done and why in the years TSR did things like buy a needlepoint distributorship, or establish a west coast office at King Vedor's mansion. Why had a moderate success in collectable dice triggered a million unit order? Why did I still have stacks and stacks of 1st edition rulebooks in the warehouse? Why did TSR create not once, not twice, but nearly a dozen times a variation on the same, Tolkien inspired, eurocentric fantasy theme? Why had it constantly tried to create different games, poured money into marketing those games, only to realize that nobody was buying those games? Why, when it was so desperate for cash, had it invested in a million dollar license for content used by less than 10% of the marketplace? Why had a successful game line like Dragonlance been forcibly uprooted from its natural home in the D&D game and transplanted to a foreign and untested new game system? Why had the company funded the development of a science fiction game modeled on D&D - then not used the D&D game rules?

In all my research into TSR's business, across all the ledgers, notebooks, computer files, and other sources of data, there was one thing I never found - one gaping hole in the mass of data we had available.

No customer profiling information. No feedback. No surveys. No "voice of the customer". TSR, it seems, knew nothing about the people who kept it alive. The management of the company made decisions based on instinct and gut feelings; not data. They didn't know how to listen - as an institution, listening to customers was considered something that other companies had to do - TSR lead, everyone else followed.

In today's hypercompetitive market, that's an impossible mentality. At Wizards of the Coast, we pay close attention to the voice of the customer. We ask questions. We listen. We react. So, we spent a whole lot of time and money on a variety of surveys and studies to learn about the people who play role playing games. And, at every turn, we learned things that were not only surprising, they flew in the face of all the conventional wisdom we'd absorbed through years of professional game publishing.

We heard some things that are very, very hard for a company to hear. We heard that our customers felt like we didn't trust them. We heard that we produced material they felt was substandard, irrelevant, and broken. We heard that our stories were boring or out of date, or simply uninteresting. We heard the people felt that >we< were irrelevant.

I know now what killed TSR. It wasn't trading card games. It wasn't Dragon Dice. It wasn't the success of other companies. It was a near total inability to listen to its customers, hear what they were saying, and make changes to make those customers happy. TSR died because it was deaf.

Amazingly, despite all those problems, and despite years of neglect, the D&D game itself remained, at the core, a viable business. Damaged; certainly. Ailing; certainly. But savable? Absolutely.

Our customers were telling us that 2e was too restrictive, limited their creativity, and wasn't "fun to play'? We can fix that. We can update the core rules to enable the expression of that creativity. We can demonstrate a commitment to supporting >your< stories. >Your< worlds. And we can make the game fun again.

Our customers were telling us that we produced too many products, and that the stuff we produced was of inferior quality? We can fix that. We can cut back on the number of products we release, and work hard to make sure that each and every book we publish is useful, interesting, and of high quality.

Our customers were telling us that we spent too much time on our own worlds, and not enough time on theirs? Ok - we can fix that. We can re-orient the business towards tools, towards examples, towards universal systems and rules that aren't dependent on owning a thousand dollars of unnecessary materials first.

Our customers were telling us that they prefer playing D&D nearly 2:1 over the next most popular game option? That's an important point of distinction. We can leverage that desire to help get them more people to play >with< by reducing the barriers to compatibility between the material we produce, and the material created by other companies.

Our customers told us they wanted a better support organization? We can pour money and resources into the RPGA and get it growing and supporting players like never before in the club's history. (10,000 paid members and rising, nearly 50,000 unpaid members - numbers currently skyrocketing).

Our customers were telling us that they want to create and distribute content based on our game? Fine - we can accommodate that interest and desire in a way that keeps both our customers and our lawyers happy.

Are we still listening? Yes, we absolutely are. If we hear you asking us for something we're not delivering, we'll deliver it. But we're not going to cater to the specific and unique needs of a minority if doing so will cause hardship to the majority. We're going to try and be responsible shepards of the D&D business, and that means saying "no" to things that we have shown to be damaging to the business and that aren't wanted or needed by most of our customers.

We listened when the customers told us that Alternity wasn't what they wanted in a science fiction game. We listened when customers told us that they didn't want the confusing, jargon filled world of Planescape. We listened when people told us that the Ravenloft concept was overshadowed by the products of a competitor. We listened to customers who told us that they want core materials, not world materials. That they buy DUNGEON magazine every two months at a rate twice that of our best selling stand-alone adventures.

We're not telling anyone what game to play. We are telling the market that we're going to actively encourage our players to stand up and demand that they be listened to, and that they become the center of the gaming industry - rather than the current publisher-centric model. Through the RPGA, the Open Gaming movement, the pages of Dragon Magazine, and all other venues available, we want to empower our customers to do what >they< want, to force us and our competitors to bend to >their< will, to make the products >they< want made.

I want to be judged on results, not rhetoric. I want to look back at my time at the helm of this business and feel that things got better, not worse. I want to know that my team made certain that the mistakes of the past wouldn't be the mistakes of the future. I want to know that we figured out what went wrong. That we fixed it. That we saved D&D. And that god damnit, we didn't lose money.

Thank you for listening,
Sincerely,
Ryan S. Dancey
VP, Wizards of the Coast
Brand Manager, Dungeons & Dragons

 
Last edited by a moderator:
Ryan S. Dancey

Comments

lowkey13

I'm sorry, Dave. I'm afraid I can't do that.
Lorraine Williams makes for a convenient villain in the story. I don’t think she’s ever spoken on her time at TSR. I went to a seminar on TSR West at Gen Con, and the lecturer had spoken with everyone involved, except for Lorraine Williams, who never responded to his requests for an interview.

In silence, it’s easy to build your own narrative. I’m not going to say that mistakes weren’t made, but that’s pretty much the story of TSR from start to finish.
Heh.

Mistakes were Made: The Story of TSR.
 

Umbran

Mod Squad
Staff member
Probably, but maybe TSR would have gone under in 1987 instead of 1997 without her...counterfactuals are murky.
I think you mean hypotheticals - "What if Williams wasn't there?"

It seems pretty clear to me that Williams had a better handle on how a business works, in general. But, as Dancey suggests, I think she (and Gygax and the Blumes before her) didn't understand the market and its dynamics.

Arguably, WotC didn't really understand either. Though Dancey seems to have realized this - that RPGs don't actually sell like CCGs, and you can't do an endless, fast stream of supplements and have a healthy RPG environment - WotC let him go, and kept with a fast-paced release schedule.

Admittedly, it is a lot easier to understand these things today, with 20 years more development of information technologies and the internet than was available in 1997.
 

Parmandur

Legend
I think you mean hypotheticals - "What if Williams wasn't there?"

It seems pretty clear to me that Williams had a better handle on how a business works, in general. But, as Dancey suggests, I think she (and Gygax and the Blumes before her) didn't understand the market and its dynamics.

Arguably, WotC didn't really understand either. Though Dancey seems to have realized this - that RPGs don't actually sell like CCGs, and you can't do an endless, fast stream of supplements and have a healthy RPG environment - WotC let him go, and kept with a fast-paced release schedule.

Admittedly, it is a lot easier to understand these things today, with 20 years more development of information technologies and the internet than was available in 1997.
Agreed, though I do mean counterfactual (because it is a word that I love dearly), grated it is a synonym.
 

Umbran

Mod Squad
Staff member
Agreed, though I do mean counterfactual (because it is a word that I love dearly), grated it is a synonym.
Yes, if you grate up "counterfactual" you get hypotheticals. :p

Since we are among pedants, I'd say no, they aren't synonyms. "Counterfactual" means "going agaisnt fact". That means that anything that is factually false is a counterfactual - so any lie, for example. A hypothetical is relating to a hypothesis - a point that isn't necessarily true, but is a basis for reasoning or a line of thought.

These things are not the same - a hypothetical is specifically part of a speculative process, while counterfactuals in general do not have such pretensions.
 

Parmandur

Legend
Yes, if you grate up "counterfactual" you get hypotheticals. :p

Since we are among pedants, I'd say no, they aren't synonyms. "Counterfactual" means "going agaisnt fact". That means that anything that is factually false is a counterfactual - so any lie, for example. A hypothetical is relating to a hypothesis - a point that isn't necessarily true, but is a basis for reasoning or a line of thought.

These things are not the same - a hypothetical is specifically part of a speculative process, while counterfactuals in general do not have such pretensions.
On the contrary, this is precisely what counterfactuals are used for:

counterfactual
"A conditional statement whose antecedent is known (or, at least, believed) to be contrary to fact. Thus, for example, "If George W. Bush had been born in Idaho, then he would never have become President." Unlike material implications, counterfactuals are not made true by the falsity of their antecedents. Although they are not truth-functional statements, counterfactuals may be significant for the analysis of scientific hypotheses.

Philosophical Dictionary: Copernicus-Cynicism
 

BookBarbarian

Expert Long Rester
If I hadn't read in the comments that this was from 19 years ago, I never would have guessed.

Dancey's lessons learned seem to be so similar to the feedback WotC now solicits from every playtest that it's almost eerily prophetic.

Then again if I had a dime for everytime I thought "Hey that guy that was let go from [company I currently work for] was right." I'd have several dimes.
 

lowkey13

I'm sorry, Dave. I'm afraid I can't do that.
I think there is a lot of emotional involvement in D&D, so the story keeps going, though macro-scale Apple and Steve Jobs had sort of the same deal. Perspective is also a thing, from WotC's perspective, buying TSR was a win, I'm sure.
Weird you bring that up, because I always think of the Jobs/Apple analogy when I think of EGG/TSR (although without the historical import and, um, triumphant second act).

Part of it is also that there were two out-of-the-blue events for those of us in the hobby. I mean, this was mostly pre-internet (the EGG ouster was, and the WoTC purchase was just at the beginning ... prior to common use) so there wasn't much distribution of information.

I still remember hearing about the ouster of EGG after-the-fact, and being floored. As far as I was concerned, EGG was TSR; EGG was D&D! And, of course, I had not idea about the financial issues, and the West Coast shenanigans, or any of that.

And while there were rumors of TSR's lack of full health (Dragon Dice!!!), I think it was still a major, major shock for many gamers when WoTC purchased them. At the time, D&D was a mature brand, beloved by generations, and Magic was, well, a fad. Something the kids played, like pogs or something.

shrug

Anyway, fascinating stuff.
 

Beleriphon

Totally Awesome Pirate Brain
Yeah, the TSR creatives have been very open with how dysfunctional things were at TSR.

Though, I would kill to read Lorraine Williams version of events: I can't recall where off-hand, but I do remember reading a bit from her explaining her mid-80's viewpoint, and it complicated the picture.
I expect it was a lot of "just in time" manufacturing mentality. Treating books like car parts.
 

Parmandur

Legend
I expect it was a lot of "just in time" manufacturing mentality. Treating books like car parts.
That was a big part. One of my favorite "what were they thinking?'' bits was that the Sales side never shared data with the creative side, so the guys making the products has zero feedback on what people were buying, leading to basically random product decisions.
 

Umbran

Mod Squad
Staff member
And while there were rumors of TSR's lack of full health (Dragon Dice!!!), I think it was still a major, major shock for many gamers when WoTC purchased them. At the time, D&D was a mature brand, beloved by generations, and Magic was, well, a fad. Something the kids played, like pogs or something.
Perspective definitely matters. My friends and I'd been playing M:tG since 1993. It was pretty clear to us that Magic was basically a way for WotC to pretty much print money. By 1997, WotC was full of cash. Any company worth its salt at that point would want to diversify its portfolio. A mature, but slower-moving brand like D&D seemed to make a lot of sense, and wasn't surprising at all to us.
 

lowkey13

I'm sorry, Dave. I'm afraid I can't do that.
Perspective definitely matters. My friends and I'd been playing M:tG since 1993. It was pretty clear to us that Magic was basically a way for WotC to pretty much print money. By 1997, WotC was full of cash. Any company worth its salt at that point would want to diversify its portfolio. A mature, but slower-moving brand like D&D seemed to make a lot of sense, and wasn't surprising at all to us.
Agreed on the perspective. I'm guessing it was similar to the wargamers in the 60s and 70s who didn't understand that this "RPG thing" would amount to much.

For those of us who never went over to the dark card side, and saw M:tG as something (along with Yu-Gi-Oh and Pokemon) played by a bunch of obnoxious tweens, it was a shock.

"Wait ... how much money?" ;)
 

David Howery

Adventurer
as someone who jumped full bore into D&D in 1980, I had suspicions over the years that they weren't being managed well. Not long after I got into the hobby, TSR put a notice in Dragon that they had identified several cost saving measure in printing, so modules would be cheaper. Nice, but I had to wonder just why no one had looked at it earlier. Over the years, I saw TSR get into printing some of SPI's wargames after they failed, making their own miniatures, license Buck Rogers, trying to copy M:tG with their own collectible card game, and last and least, Dragon Dice. Not to mention the revolving door of artists, editors, etc.
 

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