There are many many youtube videos and some web pages where 4e players have imported Skill Challenges to 5e some of what they lack is the not everything you invest towards succeeding in a challenge == a skill use or application some are strategic resources.Then again, lack of a skill challenge system means there is no fixed value to 'get advantage on your next check in this challenge' or somesuch.[
Its a resource that could be leveraged indeed. But seems as unpredictable as cash.At least 5e does have a, fairly rudimentary, system in terms of Inspiration, that could be leveraged, but it really would benefit heavily from being restructured.
5e already has spells with component costs. Those costs are effectively meaningless because of what you mentioned.