D&D 5E Wilderness Exploration according to the core rulebooks of 5e

FallenRX

Explorer
So just like with Dungeon Turns, the rules for Wilderness Travel for the playtest are still in the game just scattered, I'm going to piece them back together, help me fill out the holes. And tell me what you think. This will be far longer and more comprehensive as Wilderness Travel rules are far more scattered and requires a lot more than just Dungeon Crawling. Go to the bottom of the post for the full procedure.

[Outdoor Map]
Mapping a Wilderness DMG
p108

"In contrast to a dungeon, an outdoor setting presents seemingly limitless options. The adventurers can move in any direction over a trackless desert or an open grassland, so how do you as the DM deal with all the possible locations and events that might make up a wilderness campaign? What if you design an encounter in a desert oasis, but the characters miss the oasis because they wander off course? How do you avoid creating a boring play session of uninterrupted slogging across a rocky wasteland?

One solution is to think of an outdoor setting in the same way you think about a dungeon. Even the most wide-open terrain presents clear pathways. Roads seldom run straight because they follow the contours of the land, finding the most level or otherwise easiest routes across uneven ground. Valleys and ridges channel travel in certain directions. Mountain ranges present forbidding barriers traversed only by remote passes. Even the most trackless desert reveals favored routes, where explorers and caravan drivers have discovered areas of wind-blasted rock that are easier to traverse than shifting sand.

If the party veers off track, you might be able to relocate one or more of your planned encounters elsewhere on the map to ensure that the time spent preparing those encounters doesn't go to waste."

Movement on the Map DMG p108

"Narrate wilderness travel at a level of detail appropriate to the map you're using. If you're tracking hour-by-hour movement on a province-scale map (1 hex = 1 mile), you can describe each hamlet the adventurers pass. At this scale, you can assume that the characters find a noteworthy location when they enter its hex unless the site is specifically hidden. The characters might not walk directly up to the front door of a ruined castle when they enter a hex, but they can find old paths, outlying ruins, and other signs of its presence in the area.

If you're tracking a journey of several days on a kingdom-scale map (1 hex = 6 miles), don't bother with details too small to appear on your map. It's enough for the players to know that on the third day of their journey, they cross a river and the land starts rising before them, and that they reach the mountain pass two days later."
Using A Map DMG p242 (Province or Kingdom Map Scale)

Whatever environment the adventurers are exploring, you can use a map to follow their progress as you relate the details of their travels. In a dungeon, tracking movement on a map lets you describe the branching passages, doors, chambers, and other features the adventurers encounter as they go, and gives the players the opportunity to choose their own path

Map Travel Pace. Province Scale (1 hex = 1 mi.) DMG p242.

Slow Pace. 2 hexes/hr., 18 hexes/day

Normal Pace. 3 hexes/hr., 24 hexes/day

Fast Pace. 4 hexes/hr., 30 hexes/day

Map Travel Pace. Kingdom Scale (1 hex = 6 mi.) DMG p242.

Slow Pace. 1 hex/3 hr., 3 hexes/day

Normal Pace. 1 hex/2 hr., 4 hexes/day

Fast Pace. 1 hex/1½ hr., 5 hexes/day

[Travel Time]

Time PHB
p181

"In a city or wilderness, a scale of hours is often more appropriate. Adventurers eager to reach the lonely tower at the heart of the forest hurry across those fifteen miles in just under four hours' time.

For long journeys, a scale of days works best. Following the road from Baldur's Gate to Waterdeep, the adventurers spend four uneventful days before a goblin ambush interrupts their journey. " The game assumes movement on the map is done on a per-hour basis on smaller scale journeys, but a per-day basis on longer scale ones.

Travel Pace PHB p181

Travel Speed in Wilderness. (Per Hours.) PHB p181

Fast.
4 Miles (-5 penalty to passive Wisdom (Perception) scores)

Normal. 3 miles

Slow. 2 miles (Able to use stealth)"

Travel Speed in Wilderness. (Per Days.) PHB 181

Fast.
30 Miles (-5 penalty to passive Wisdom (Perception) scores)

Normal. 24 miles

Slow. 19 miles (Able to use stealth)"

Forced March. PHB 181

"The Travel Pace table assumes that characters travel for 8 hours in day. They can push on beyond that limit, at the risk of exhaustion.

For each additional hour of travel beyond 8 hours, the characters cover the distance shown in the Hour column for their pace, and each character must make a Constitution saving throw at the end of the hour. The DC is 10 + 1 for each hour past 8 hours. On a failed saving throw, a character suffers one level of exhaustion (see the appendix)."

Mounts and Vehicles. PHB 181

"For short spans of time (up to an hour), many animals move much faster than humanoids. A mounted character can ride at a gallop for about an hour, covering twice the usual distance for a fast pace. If fresh mounts are available every 8 to 10 miles, characters can cover larger distances at this pace, but this is very rare except in densely populated areas."
Visibility Outdoors DMG p243

"When traveling outdoors, characters can see about 2 miles in any direction on a clear day, or until the point where trees, hills, or other obstructions block their view. Rain normally cuts maximum visibility down to 1 mile, and fog can cut it down to between 100 and 300 feet. On a clear day, the characters can see 40 miles if they are atop a mountain or a tall hill, or are otherwise able to look down on the area around them from a height."

Difficult Terrain PHB p182

"The travel speeds given in the Travel Pace table assume relatively simple terrain: roads, open plains, or clear dungeon corridors. But adventurers often face dense forests, deep swamps, rubble-filled ruins, steep mountains, and ice-covered ground—all considered difficult terrain.

You move at half speed in difficult terrain—moving 1 foot in difficult terrain costs 2 feet of speed—so you can cover only half the normal distance in a minute, an hour, or a day."

[Random Encounters] DMG p85

"You decide when a random encounter happens, or you roll. Consider checking for a random encounter once every hour, once every 4 to 8 hours, or once during the day and once during a long rest-whatever makes the most sense based on how active the area is.

If you roll, do so with a d20. If the result is 18 or higher, a random encounter occurs. You then roll on an appropriate random encounter table to determine what the adventurers meet, re-rolling if the die result doesn't make sense given the circumstances." DMG p86. Assuming the lowest scale for a dungeon, so a check every hour."

With this it's assumed how often you roll for random encounters will be based on how populated you think the area of wilderness is. So you can make a basic chart here using these guidelines.

Encounter Frequency per Region Population.
Sparsely Inhabited. Encounter check once per day, and once per Long Rest.
Typical Population. Encounter check once every 4-8 hours.
Densely Inhabited. Encounter check once every hour

Encounter Distance(DM Screen. Yes this was in the DM Screen.)

Arctic, desert, farmland, or grassland. 6d6 × 10 feet

Forest, swamp, or woodland. 2d8 × 10 feet

Hills or wastelands. 2d10 × 10 feet

Jungle. 2d6 × 10 feet

Mountains. 4d10 × 10 feet

This about sums up expectations of Encounters in the Wilderness.

[Environmental Effects]
Wilderness Survival DMG
p109

"Adventuring in the wilderness presents a host of perils beyond the threats of monstrous predators and savage raiders. "(Specific rules for each conditions will not be posted here, just go to the DMG page cited to find it.)

Weather DMG p109

"You can pick weather to fit your campaign or roll on the Weather table to determine the weather for a given day, adjusting for the terrain and season as appropriate." (Tables contained in the DMG, will not post it here for simplicities sake)

Extreme Cold DMG p110

Extreme Heat DMG p110

Strong Wind DMG p110

Heavy Precipitation DMG p110

High Altitude DMG p110

Wilderness Hazards DMg p110

"This section describes a few examples of hazards that adventurers might encounter in the wilderness.

Some hazards, such as slippery ice and razorvine, require no ability check to spot. Others, such as defiled ground, are undetectable by normal senses.

The other hazards presented here can be identified with a successful Intelligence (Nature) check. Use the guidelines in chapter 8 to set an appropriate DC for any check made to spot or recognize a hazard."(Specific rules for hazards will not be posted here, check the DMG page cited for the full rules on them)

Desecrated Ground DMG p110

Frigid Water DMG p110

Quicksand DMG
p110

Razorvine DMG p110

Slippery Ice DMG p110

Thin Ice DMG p111

[Wilderness Survival]
Food and Water PHB
p185

"Characters who don't eat or drink suffer the effects of exhaustion (see the appendix). Exhaustion caused by lack of food or water can't be removed until the character eats and drinks the full required amount."

Food PHBp185

"A character needs one pound of food per day and can make food last longer by subsisting on half rations. Eating half a pound of food in a day counts as half a day without food.

A character can go without food for a number of days equal to 3 + his or her Constitution modifier (minimum 1). At the end of each day beyond that limit, a character automatically suffers one level of exhaustion.

A normal day of eating resets the count of days without food to zero."

Water PHB p185

"A character needs one gallon of water per day, or two gallons per day if the weather is hot. A character who drinks only half that much water must succeed on a DC 15 Constitution saving throw or suffer one level of exhaustion at the end of the day. A character with access to even less water automatically suffers one level of exhaustion at the end of the day.

If the character already has one or more levels of exhaustion, the character takes two levels in either case."

Foraging DMG p111

"Characters can gather food and water as the party travels at a normal or slow pace. A foraging character makes a Wisdom (Survival) check whenever you call for it, with the DC determined by the abundance of food and water in the region. On a successful check, roll 1d6 + the character's Wisdom modifier to determine how much food (in pounds) the character finds, then repeat the roll for water (in gallons)."

Becoming Lost DMG p111

"Unless they are following a path, or something like it, adventurers traveling in the wilderness run the risk of becoming lost. The party's navigator makes a Wisdom (Survival) check when you decide it's appropriate, against a DC determined by the prevailing terrain, as shown on the Wilderness Navigation table. If the party is moving at a slow pace, the navigator gains a +5 bonus to the check, and a fast pace imposes a -5 penalty. If the party has an accurate map of the region or can see the sun or stars, the navigator has advantage on the check.

If the Wisdom (Survival) check succeeds, the party travels in the desired direction without becoming lost. If the check fails, the party inadvertently travels in the wrong direction and becomes lost. The party's navigator can repeat the check after the party spends 1d6 hours trying to get back on course."

[Exploration Activities] PHB p182

" As adventurers travel through a dungeon or the wilderness, they need to remain alert for danger, and some characters might perform other tasks to help the group's journey. " PHB 182.

Marching Order PHB p182

The adventurers should establish a marching order.

A marching order makes it easier to determine which characters are affected by traps, which ones can spot hidden enemies, and which ones are the closest to those enemies when a fight breaks out.

Stealth PHB p182. While traveling at a slow pace, the characters can move stealthily using Stealth Checks.
Listed activities. (Full details of how to do the actions are in the rulebook, just noting them all down.)

Noticing Threats PHB p182 (If no activity is taken, this is the default task done)
"Characters who turn their attention to other tasks as the group travels are not focused on watching for danger.

These characters don't contribute their passive Wisdom (Perception) scores to the group's chance of noticing hidden threats. However, a character not watching for danger can do one of the following activities instead, or some other activity with the DM's permission." PHB p182
Navigate. PHB p183
Draw a Map. PHB p183
Track. PHB p183
Forage. PHB p183

Each activity is done during each hour or of traveling in the wilderness, depending on the scale of the journey.

Just like with the Dungeon Rules, when you finally piece together all of the Exploration rules, you see that the rules of the "Wilderness Turn" from the playtest are all still in the game but scattered, yet they still expect you to use them. It generally plays like a streamlined version of B/X.

This is the sequence of play for an hour or day of travel and exploration in a wilderness environment.

The Wilderness Turn, as explained by 5e.

  1. Travel Pace, course, and Activities. The party decides what direction they will move in, set a travel pace, marching order, and decides which activities to do while traveling
  2. Progress and description. The players make progress on the map, time moves forward, and the DM descriptions what actions are taken and what happens next.
  3. Encounter Check. DM checks for encounters, DM determines the distance, and If monsters are encountered, resolve any interaction or combat that occurs between the creatures and the characters. How often a check is made depends on the population of the region, usually every 4-8 hours.
  4. Environmental Effects. Apply effects of the environment, weather, or terrain, such as extreme cold. Some of these effects might require saving throws from the characters. In addition, if the characters attempt a forced march, resolve saving throws for that activity at this point. Also, note the consumption of resources such as spells and items, as well as spell durations.
  5. End of turn. After performing all these steps, go back to the first step and repeat the sequence.
RAW this is how 5e expects you to run wilderness travel, it's how they tested it, and most of the rules are still in the game to handle it this way, this is me simply compiling it. What do you think of it? Are they even good? Does it accomplish its goal of a B/X like WIlderness Turn?

IMO, its basically just the Dungeon Rules, scaled up for wilderness, they expect it generally to be kinda a hexcrawl mainly, and im not sure if that works for every table. But it definitely is a bit more robust than first thought.
 
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RAW this is how 5e expects you to run wilderness travel, it's how they tested it, and most of the rules are still in the game to handle it this way, this is me simply compiling it. What do you think of it? Are they even good? Does it accomplish its goal of a B/X like WIlderness Turn?

IMO, its basically just the Dungeon Rules, scaled up for wilderness, they expect it generally to be kinda a hexcrawl mainly, and im not sure if that works for every table. But it definitely is a bit more robust than first thought.

The basic ruleset for wilderness is not as sparse as sometimes discussed. Compare it to the oft lauded BX X54-58 or AD&D DMG appendix C. plus pp.47-58 and it is hard to say exactly what is missing. Possibly nothing except for presentation.

To the question of does it accomplish a B/X wilderness turn goal, I guess I would say that in a vacuum it does. Why it fails for so many people, IMO, is (and again, this is in comparison to the B/X games I ran BitD):
A) Natural Explorer, Goodberry, and Pass Without Trace -- I know it has been hammered to death, but it is at least significantly true that the characters likely to be chosen by someone who wants to engage the wilderness system obviate or at least make less interesting those things involved in the wilderness system.
B) Default recharge rules -- I get it, 5/15 minute workday and/or '5e defaults to easy mode.' Both are true, both are solvable by DM involvement (under group consensus). 5e defaulting to easy isn't a bad thing-the game is designed for children to be able to play without supervision, adults should be able to use the readily available optional material to cultivate the challenge rating they seek. Regardless, wandering encounters aren't a huge challenge if even a 'deadly' encounter is only likely to inflict resource loss which will disappear overnight.
C) XP for combat instead of GP -- This I think is a major driving force for B/X, although in a counterintuitive way. Wilderness adventure was, overall, detrimental in B/X. You could lose HP and other expendibles on your way to... whereever you were going (more on that in a minute); but, barring the occasional lair you found from the wandering monster, you received precious little benefit. Thus, getting through the wilderness travel as quickly as possible (both in terms of miles per day and in not getting lost), and with as few encounters as possible, was a huge benefit. Although that made it work, it was interesting work because doing really well at it had an obvious positive benefit.
And I think most importantly,
D) B/X wilderness turn as an actual goal -- this one is at least part cultural, although there are actual mechanics changes that contribute as well (no building a keep to attract followers at name level being an example). I think early D&D had a much better framing as going out and exploring the wilderness being something you expected to do (often for its' own sake). There was empty space on the map, go find out what's there. If you clear the hex, you might be able to make it yours. If there's a dungeon* there, you can explore that for treasure (/xp), which will make you better at exploring the map and finding dungeons to explore for treasure... (cycle continues)
*Dungeons for their own sake also being more prevalent.
 



I have to recheck the Journey subsystem mechanic from Adventures in Middle-Earth and compare. I was never exactly "fond" of 5E's take on the Wilderness and stuff, but actually seeing it listed down in perfect clarity and all in one spot probably changes that notion. Thankfully I haven't done any major "trips" in any session I ran yet (lots of close places with a simple bit of handwaving/fast forward to the next scene).

Although, I may still stick with the Journeys subsystem for my 5E games.

Kinda somewhat gives me an idea on a post I could do "somewhat" related to this.
 

UngainlyTitan

Legend
Supporter
@FallenRX the Op is a fair summary of the rules as they exist. I have been reviewing the same over the last couple of months and ruminating on them ever since I created a for personal use module for FantasyGrounds to collate the information in the Dungeon Masters Screen Wilderness Kit version and I had a 20 minute rant at the computer on the subject of the Wilderness Navigation table. This the worst kind of pull the DC out of your backside construction and has no relation to actual wilderness navigation.

Now, from memory it plays pretty much as old school D&D (or AD&D) and it is fine for a resource tracking, old school hex crawl type of game. It does suffer from the fact that Favoured Terrain and the Outlander backgrounds Wanderer feature breaks it, or at least severely bends it, as do some other features in 5e and there rapid recharge of powers make a resource attrition game a bit of a issue in 5e as the rest of the game pushes back against it.
Also at high level you can pretty much bypass the wilderness.

Now for people who do not like resource management or old school play this reduces to some random die rolling and may be a trivial encounter with no lasting consequences.

@HammerMan That the the AIME book have a very interesting take but it is very tied to themes of Shadow and Corruption from the game.

The way I see it, favoured terrain should be done the way it is in the Cubicle 7 Middle Earth books. Modified for D&D this should be: terrain you know well, know moderately well, do not really know and hostile. These should give modifiers to the navigation and survival checks.
With more modifiers from prior research. The length of march should negatively modify the roll.
The party should have a minimum range to travel on standard living expenses where they are considered well supplied. The could extend that by spending more and further again with pack animals. Wagons and mounts also extend movement range.
Movement out of supply forces forage and increases the travel time and so on.

Turning this noodling into a process of play, well I am not there yet. Basically I think that the successful execution of a journey should be based on knowledge of the terrain, preparation, weather (influenced by climate and time of year), supplies and some risk factor of the route and that there should be some random encounters, beneficial if they roll well and complications if they roll badly.
That all of this will give how much delay on the journey and maybe if things go really wrong they pick up some exhaustion at their destination.
 


HammerMan

Legend
@HammerMan That the the AIME book have a very interesting take but it is very tied to themes of Shadow and Corruption from the game.

The way I see it, favoured terrain should be done the way it is in the Cubicle 7 Middle Earth books. Modified for D&D this should be: terrain you know well, know moderately well, do not really know and hostile. These should give modifiers to the navigation and survival checks.
With more modifiers from prior research. The length of march should negatively modify the roll.
The party should have a minimum range to travel on standard living expenses where they are considered well supplied. The could extend that by spending more and further again with pack animals. Wagons and mounts also extend movement range.
Movement out of supply forces forage and increases the travel time and so on.
yeah, they need some modification but I think it gives a great start (I stole the idea of corruption for my game)
 



iserith

Magic Wordsmith
Now, from memory it plays pretty much as old school D&D (or AD&D) and it is fine for a resource tracking, old school hex crawl type of game. It does suffer from the fact that Favoured Terrain and the Outlander backgrounds Wanderer feature breaks it, or at least severely bends it, as do some other features in 5e and there rapid recharge of powers make a resource attrition game a bit of a issue in 5e as the rest of the game pushes back against it.
Regarding Favored Terrain and Outlander, my experience is that they provide nice benefits, but don't really break or bend anything when all the rules are employed. Favored Terrain only applies to certain terrain, of course, so provided the map has a variety of terrain types, it's only going to come into play sometimes. Further, Activities While Traveling all come with trade-offs and risk - if you're doing one thing, you can't do another thing and also you don't notice hidden threats and can't apply your passive Perception. That means you don't notice the trap and you are automatically surprised if a stealthy monster is indicated.

Favored Terrain allows for the ranger to both keep watch and do another task (often Navigate in my experience so the party has no chance of getting lost). Whatever task the ranger chooses comes at the cost of not doing some other task. Outlander can Forage with no chance of failure (assuming food and water are available in the area), but choosing to Forage means doing no other task and putting themselves at risk of automatic surprise. They'll have to decide if it's worth it at the time. Arguably they automatically succeed when they choose to Navigate as well, but only for places they've already been. So good at backtracking, no better than anyone else at trailblazing.

All that to say, the rules work pretty well together when they are applied, even with regard to Favored Terrain and Outlander. Now, certainly there are some spells (particularly at higher levels) that can obviate some aspects of wilderness exploration. And standard resting in the face of 1 or 2 encounters a day likely means a lot of nova'ing. But that just argues for adjusting the dials of the game to fit the kind of play experience the group is going for (e.g. variant resting, taking some spells off the table, etc.). My view is that the game is meant to be adjusted in this way for every game the DM wants to run.
 

UngainlyTitan

Legend
Supporter
Regarding Favored Terrain and Outlander, my experience is that they provide nice benefits, but don't really break or bend anything when all the rules are employed. Favored Terrain only applies to certain terrain, of course, so provided the map has a variety of terrain types, it's only going to come into play sometimes. Further, Activities While Traveling all come with trade-offs and risk - if you're doing one thing, you can't do another thing and also you don't notice hidden threats and can't apply your passive Perception. That means you don't notice the trap and you are automatically surprised if a stealthy monster is indicated.

Favored Terrain allows for the ranger to both keep watch and do another task (often Navigate in my experience so the party has no chance of getting lost). Whatever task the ranger chooses comes at the cost of not doing some other task. Outlander can Forage with no chance of failure (assuming food and water are available in the area), but choosing to Forage means doing no other task and putting themselves at risk of automatic surprise. They'll have to decide if it's worth it at the time. Arguably they automatically succeed when they choose to Navigate as well, but only for places they've already been. So good at backtracking, no better than anyone else at trailblazing.

All that to say, the rules work pretty well together when they are applied, even with regard to Favored Terrain and Outlander. Now, certainly there are some spells (particularly at higher levels) that can obviate some aspects of wilderness exploration. And standard resting in the face of 1 or 2 encounters a day likely means a lot of nova'ing. But that just argues for adjusting the dials of the game to fit the kind of play experience the group is going for (e.g. variant resting, taking some spells off the table, etc.). My view is that the game is meant to be adjusted in this way for every game the DM wants to run.
I will admit that my response was more from what I have read here than actual practise of the rules in play. I basically do not like the gameplay they produce. I am not interested in hex by hex granularity and would prefer a more skill challenge like structure that I can hang a narrative from and occasionally hang event or encounter.
I also find the "Favoured Terrain" notion to be deeply silly and prefer the Adventures in Middle Earth approach of "Knowledge of the Locality" to be preferable.
 

Morrus

Well, that was fun
Staff member
Ahem!

 

iserith

Magic Wordsmith
I will admit that my response was more from what I have read here than actual practise of the rules in play. I basically do not like the gameplay they produce. I am not interested in hex by hex granularity and would prefer a more skill challenge like structure that I can hang a narrative from and occasionally hang event or encounter.
I also find the "Favoured Terrain" notion to be deeply silly and prefer the Adventures in Middle Earth approach of "Knowledge of the Locality" to be preferable.
Sure, when I play D&D 4e (running a game now), I use skill challenges for wilderness travel. For D&D 5e, it's either glossed over or it's a hex crawl in our games. I'm running a swamp hex crawl now in D&D 5e. It employs these rules and variant resting, plus some limitations on spells. It works great for that particular play experience.
 


FallenRX

Explorer
Ahem!

No need to compile these together because it's all there, and runs like a dream, gods work yall did morrus.
 

Charlaquin

Goblin Queen (She/Her/Hers)
One thing this and the dungeon exploration compilation reveal is that the books aren’t kidding when they say everything outside of combat and social interactions is exploration. Both wilderness travel and dungeon delving follow basically the same rules - the exploration rules. For some reason they just decided to scatter individual bits and pieces of those rules throughout the books and make DMs find them all like a scavenger hunt.
 

FallenRX

Explorer
One thing this and the dungeon exploration compilation reveal is that the books aren’t kidding when they say everything outside of combat and social interactions is exploration. Both wilderness travel and dungeon delving follow basically the same rules - the exploration rules. For some reason they just decided to scatter individual bits and pieces of those rules throughout the books and make DMs find them all like a scavenger hunt.
Hard agreed, the fact i had to do this, and refer to playtest materials just for general reference on basic design things they tested, and kept in the game is astonishing.
 

S'mon

Legend
I was just going over this stuff a day or two ago.

1. The 5e authors have no idea what a 'gallop' is. :) 10 miles in an hour for a horse is fairly ok, but it'd be a mix of walk + canter, or maybe a trot. A gallop is much like a human sprint; you don't sprint for an hour.

2. The wilderness encounter sytem started working for me once I went over to 1 week long rests. Rolling daily encounters with overnight recovery feels pointless. If the PCs need to risk several encounters before a LR, it works.
 

UngainlyTitan

Legend
Supporter
I was just going over this stuff a day or two ago.

1. The 5e authors have no idea what a 'gallop' is. :) 10 miles in an hour for a horse is fairly ok, but it'd be a mix of walk + canter, or maybe a trot. A gallop is much like a human sprint; you don't sprint for an hour.

2. The wilderness encounter sytem started working for me once I went over to 1 week long rests. Rolling daily encounters with overnight recovery feels pointless. If the PCs need to risk several encounters before a LR, it works.
They have no idea what wilderness navigation means also. it has a lot more to do with topography, weather and local knowledge. Both Level Up and Adventures in Middle Earth do a better job.
 

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