Cartography Workshop

Jürgen Hubert

First Post
I thought it might be of general interest to start a Cartography Workshop thread - a thread where we can explain techniques we used to create our maps.

I will start with a few techniques of my own - specifically, the techniques I used to create this map. But I want to stress that I am not pretending to show the "one true way" of creating maps - in fact, I am a relative beginner, and I am sure that there are many ways of doing things better! If you have suggestions for improvements, or different ways of doing things, jump right in and tell us about it! This is a workshop, not a tutorial, and I want this to be as much for the improvement of my cartography skills as for yours.


But first a few words on the tools I used.

For line drawings - for basic outlines of continents, rivers, mountains etc - I use Inkscape. Inscape is a vector-based graphics program, meaning that if you want to change the map scale later on or move minor details around, you can do so easily without lots of minor editing to prevent weird image artifacts. I also use Inkscape to place the location of cities and similar small details - this allows them to be moved around easily.

For filtering effects - to give the map color details and special effects - I use GIMP, which is a bitmap-based graphics program in the veins of Photoshop, which you might be more familiar with.

Both of these programs are Open Source and freely available for a number of platforms, so you can repeat all of those steps by yourself.

Another tool, while not strictly speaking neccessary, is still something I highly recommend: A graphics tablet. These handy little devices will make drawing lines a lot faster. I recommend a Wacom tablet because they have pressure sensitivity (though you won't need it for what follows, that's still a nifty feature) and because they are simply the best on the market.
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
I will create a small, simple map as an example for how this can work.

Open up Inkscape. Create a new layer called "Coastlines", and start drawing the outlines of your islands and continents.

If you have trouble coming up with good coastlines - or other terrain features, for that matter - I recommend looking at images from Google Maps. There are plenty of interesting terrain features in this world which can inspire you.

Now draw the continental shelf around your continents and islands on a new layer called "Continental Shelves" - the line where the deep ocean becomes shallower.

Next, create a layer called "Mountains" and draw the ridges of your mountain ranges - the lines where the highest points connect with each other.

Finally, create a layer called "Rivers" and draw some rivers which flow from the mountains to the coastlines. Select them all with Ctrl+A and give them a nice, blue color with Objects->Fill and Stroke: Stroke Paint.

We will add some further details to the map - different vegetation, cities, and so on - but that will do for now. Now export the layers as bitmaps:

Make the "Mountains" and "Rivers" layers invisible and export the rest as "OceansLayer.png".

Make only the "Mountains" layer visible and export it as "MountainsLayer.png".

Make only the "Rivers" layer visible and export it as "RiversLayer.png".


All work steps, as well as a zipped Inkscape file, are included as an attachment in this post.


Coming up next: GIMP-fu!
 

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  • Rivers.jpg
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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Now let's paint the ocean!

Load "OceansLayer.png" into GIMP. You'll notice that it looks strange - that's because the entire image with the exception of the lines you have drawn is transparent. To allow for better viewing, create an all-white new layer and place it below the existing layer.

Now create two additional new layers: "Deep Ocean" and "Shallow Ocean". Both must initially be white. Place them on top of the existing layers.

Go to the Background layer (that's what the original layer with the lines should be named like). Select the parts of the map beyond the continental shelves with the Magic Wand. Then go to the Deep Ocean Layer. Change the Foreground Color to a deep blue (I used 0032ff in HTML notation). Use the "Fill" tool with "FG color fill" and "fill whole selection" to paint the selection blue.

Now remove the selection with Select-None. Apply a Gaussian Blur with a radius of 10 px by going to "Filters->Blur->Gaussian Blur" and setting "Horizontal" and "Vertical" to 10 px.

Now add transparency to this layer. Do this via Layer->Transparency->Color to Alpha and choosing white as the color.

Duplicate this layer. Now merge the copied layer with the original one by right-clicking on it in the layer dialog and choosing "Merge Down".

This ensures that you have a gradual blending between the deep ocean and the shallower areas. We will use this technique a lot later on.

Now let's apply some effects:

- Filters->Noise->Scatter HSV with the values 2/3/160/10
- Filters->Generic->Erode
- Filters->Distort->Wind with Wind/Left/Leading/10/10

That's it for the Deep Ocean Layer. Now go to the Background Layer, select the shallow ocean parts, and go to the Shallow Ocean layer. Fill it with a light blue (I used 00afff), deselect, apply a Gaussian Blur as above, and again add transparency, dublicate it and then merge it with the original.

Now apply the following:

- Filters->Noise->Scatter HSV with the values 2/3/160/10
- Filters->Generic->Erode

Now merge the Shallow Ocean and Deep Ocean layers. Duplicate and merge them again to make sure that no transparency remans in the boundary between them.

Now go to the Background layer and select the land areas with the Magic Wand. Press SHIFT to mark more than one land mass. Go to the Oceans layer and delete all land parts by going to Edit->Cut.

Make the white layer at the bottom invisible and save the result as "OceansColor.png". Now you have a nice-looking ocean surrounding your islands!


I will cover some further examples later on, but they follow the same methods - establish basic lines with an Inkscape drawing, and then generate color effects with a variety of GIMP filters. Since I don't actually draw anything with GIMP, I can easily generate a new map with the same effects even if the Inkscape map changes.

Of course, this doesn't mean that there is no room for improvement - far from it! For example, these ocean effects look nice in color and on the screen, but they look ugly and random when you print them out with a b&w printer. And I still haven't come up with a good idea how to make them more printer friendly.

Any suggestions?
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Now let's create some mountains!

Load up "MountainsLayer.png" into GIMP.

Again, create a white layer at the bottom to make your efforts easily visible.

To the "Background" layer, apply Layer->Colors->Hute-Saturation with 0/50/0

Duplicate the "Background Layer", then apply a Gaussian Blur with 5 px to the dublicate.
Then create another dublicate, and merge that with the blurred image.
Repeat this step four more times.
Label the resulting layer "Blurred" and make the "Background" layer invisible.

Duplicate the "Blurred" Layer.
Apply "Script-Fu->Shadow->Drop-Shadow" with 5/5/15/Black/80% to "Blurred".
Apply "Filters->Artistic->Oilfy" with 3 px to "Blurred".
Reduce the Transparency of the layer to 50%.

Apply "Gaussian Blur" with 50 px to "Blurred Copy".
Apply "Filters->Artistic->Oilfy" with 10 px to "Blurred".

Merge the "Blurred copy", "Blurred", and "Drop-Shadow" layers.

Now the mountains look good. However, if you want to combine the mountains with other terrain features - such as vegetation - problems will soon become apparent. You can test this by filling the while layer at the bottom with a different color (see attached image).

To be ready for such future changes, create a new, transparent layer called "Foundations".

Go to the combined "Blurred" layer, and apply Layer->Transparency->Alpha to Selection.
Go to the "Foundations" layer and fill the entire selection with white five times.

Now make the white background layer invisible and save the rest as "MountainsColor.png".

And now you can combine the result with the saved "OceansColor.png" - see the result attached to this post. You should place the "OceansColor.png" layer on top of the other layers to avoid any terrain features growing into the ocean!



In general, I like this effect, but some people have cricicized it as too regular. I would also like to know how to make them more "plastic", with better light and shadow effects - and I have no idea how to do glaciers and snow. Any suggestions?
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
I'll add some stuff about painting rivers in the evening.

At the moment, I'm trying to think of ways of making good-looking greyscale maps with similar methods - something that will still look nice after you have printed it out.
 


Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Well, let's move on to rivers.

Load "RiversLayer.png" into GIMP.
Create a white layer and merge the Rivers layer with it.
Apply Gaussian Blur with 2px two times.

Now the "background" of the layer is probably a bit darker than "pure white", and we don't want that. Pick the background color with the "color picker", copy the HTML value of the color, and go to Layer->Transparency->Color to Alpha. Click on the color, and enter the HTML value. Now you should again have a layer that only has the rivers in it and nothing else.

Duplicate the layer and merge the two copies.
Create a Drop Shadow with -2/-2/4/Black/80%

Apply the following to the layer with the river:

Filters->Noise->Spread with 3/3
Filters->Artistic->Softglow with 10/0.75/0.85
Copy this layer twice and merge the three copies.

Now you are finished with the rivers. Save the image as "RiversColor.png"

But don't close the image yet! Instead go to File->Open As Layer and import the other Color images you have created. Move the layers around until you have the following order, from top to bottom:

Oceans
Rivers
Mountains
An empty, white layer.

It starts to look interesting, doesn't it? Save the whole thing as "BackgroundColor.png" - it will be useful in future steps.
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Now open Inkscape again. Create a new layer at the bottom named "BackgroundImage". Go to File->Import and load the map image you have just created. Move it around until the lines of the Inkscape map are directly over the bitmap image.

Now you can place new terrain features directly on top of the main map! You can simply put cities, names, or more intricate features on the map with Inkscape and export it together with the background image, without messing up your existing work and having to do it all over again.

But let's first add some vegetation into the background. Create an additional layer called "vegetation". Since this is supposed to be a simple tutorial, we will only two two different types of vegetation - grassy plains and desert.

Simply draw lines on the land areas depending how you want to divide the land into different vegetation zones. Then save this layer together with the Coastline layer (as usual, make all other layers invisible before saving) as "VegetationLayer.png"
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Now load "VegetationLayer.png" into GIMP.

Let's start with the plains. Select all areas you intend to be plains with the Magic Wand. Now create a new, all-white layer named "Plains". Go to the new layer and bucket fill the selected area with the color 00f817. Deselect everything and apply a Gaussian Blur with 40 px.

Again, pick the background color with the Color Picker and transform it to Alpha. Duplicate the layer and merge it.

Now apply the following:

Filters->Noise->Scatter HSV with 2/70/160/10
Duplicate the layer.
Apply Filters->Generic->Erode to the duplicate, set its transparency to 50%, and merge it with the original.
Layer->Color->Hue-Saturation with 0/-50/100
Filter->Artistic->Softglow with 10/1.0/1.0
Filter->Distorts->Wind with Wind/Lef/Leading/10/10

That's it for the plains! Looks nice, doesn't it?

Now let's switch to the deserts. Go to the zone outline and select the desert regions with the Magic Wand. Create a new white layer named "Deserts" and bucket fill the selection with ffeb42. As before, deselect everything, apply a Gaussian Blur with 40 px, turn the background color to Alpha, dublicate the layer and merge it again.

Now apply the following:

Filters->Noise->Scatter RGB with 0.2/0.2/0.2/0
Filters->Blur->Motion Blur with Linear/15/135
Duplicate the layer.

Apply to the copy:
Layer->Color->Brightness-Contrast with -100/100
Turn the color black to Alpha.
Erode the layer and unify it with the original.

Now merge the Plains and the Desert layers and save them as "VegetationColor.png".

Then add the other layers - Moutains, Rivers, Oceans - that you have created previously. The vegetation must be below all other layers with the exception of the white background! Now you have a finished Background image - save it under the same name as before, and you can immediately use it under Inkscape!


While I like the general effects, they have several downsides:

- It is hard to get the vegetation zones precisely the size you wanted them to be. Does anyone here have any suggestions for this?

- They don't look good in greyscale, either.

If anyone has any ideas how to cope with these, I am all ears.


Apart from that, I created these effects purely through random experimentation with various filtering effects. If anyone has a better combination of effects - or ideas how to create other vegetation types - please tell the rest of us how you did it!
 

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Jürgen Hubert

First Post
The rest is almost trivial. Go back to Inkscape again and create four new layers called "City Locations", "City Names", "Place Locations", and "Place Names".

Turn all layers except for the background image invisible. To increase contrast for the city and place locations, turn the Opacity of the background image layer to 70% or so (but be careful, because then you'll have to cycle the image through GIMP again to remove the transparency of the image).

Create two small black circles - one with a black filling, and one without. Copy and paste the first one to the "City Locations layer" to all locations where you want cities. Copy the second one to the "Place Locations layer" to all locations where you want to place unique sites.

Now you only need to label these sites with the Text tool in the City Name and Place Name layers. I recommend using different font sizes to distinguish the two - I used a size 12 font for cities and 10 for place names. Export the image as a png, load it into GIMP, add a blank white layer below it and save it again - and you are done!

And if you want to add new cities or locations, or want to move existing ones around, then you can easily do those changes in Inkscape without altering the background image...
 

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Artimidor

First Post
As you've mentioned Santharia and Jürgen pointed me to this thread (it's always helpful to learn some other techniques, so thanks for that!), some updates from my side on Santharian map making:

The tutorials on the site are pretty ancient by now (as are my old maps) and I just didn't have the time yet to make a much better tutorial with everything I've learned in the meantime concerning usage of textures etc. But I can give you at least a few glimpses on how things have progressed in Santharia concerning map making.

Personally I prefer handdrawn stuff combined with Photoshop techniques (shadows etc.) and usage of textures plus 3d objects added in. It's a lot of work, but the results are quite satisfying methinks.

As I don't have an advanced tutorial yet, here a some stages of map drawing, which might help you follow the process:

(Click on images to enlarge. Note that the enlarged versions get pretty large!)









Links to further development stages:
- Stage 5
- Stage 6
- Stage 7
- Stage 8
- Stage 9
- Stage 10
- Stage 11

And the final result looks something like this:

The Manthrian Province

Hope that provides at least a bit of inspiration for aspiring map makers :)

Artimidor
Webmaster of the Santharian Dream
 

Hussar

Legend
That's some seriously pretty maps. I've tried your tutorial and found it to be really easy to follow. My artistic skills are somewhat lacking, but, I've kept trying. Thanks for that. And thank you Jurgen for more pointers.
 



Jürgen Hubert

First Post
Here's an alternate way of creating mountains. It's probably a good idea if you use a nice, strong primary color as a background for this...

Load the Mountains Layer into GIMP.
Apply a Gaussian Blur with 5px.
Use a Magic Wand with Antialiasing, Feather Edges Radius 10, Select transparent areas, Threshold 10 on the empty parts of the layer.
Select->Invert
Create a new Transparent Layer
Bucket Fill with White on the selected areas.
Select->None
Script-Fu->Shadow->Drop-Shadow: 4/4/15/80
Script-Fu->Shadow->Drop-Shadow: 8/8/15/80

Save the results as usual.


This probably doesn't look as good for color layers, but it seems to be somewhat crisper for b&w maps. I'll investigate b&w effects further when I find the time, but like I said, I can use any suggestions...
 

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