Yes and no. Some regions have quite a bit of cohesion, at least in sub-parts. For example, Geb, the Mana Wastes, and Nex sort of form a "unit" where things outside are fairly irrelevant to the internal stuff going on, and I fully expect there to be an AP set in that part after Strength of Thousands. But even in the Impossible Lands region, Jalmeray doesn't have much to do with the rest of the region. And other regions are more heterogenous — in the Saga Lands, Varisia and New Thassilon are linked, but don't have much to do with the Linnorm Kings, Irrisen, or Mammoth Lords. The most coherent region is probably Old Cheliax consisting of Cheliax, two vassal states (Isger and Nidal), and a breakaway Cheliax province, but other than that it's pretty wild. Perhaps not to the extent of having the land of not-Vikings next door to the land of not-Arabs like in Mystara, but closer to that than to Forgotten Realms or even more coherent, Eberron.I think that this cohesion has been added as part of Pathfinder 2, particularly the Lost Omens Guide. So much like FR, Golarion has been thematically grouped into regions: e.g., Saga Lands, Eye of Dread, Old Cheliax, Shining Kingdoms, Broken Lands, etc.
I mean, I fully understand why they have designed Golarion that way. Golarion is designed to be a patchwork setting where you can fit in almost any campaign idea. You want a demon-tainted land? Go to the Sarkoris Scar. You want Game of Thrones? Brevoy's the country for you. Sword and Lasers? That's what Numeria is for. Trying to get by in an oppressive fascistic dictatorship? That's Cheliax. And so on and so forth. It's designed for developers to be able to find a place for almost any AP idea they can think of, and it does a good job of doing that.
The Forgotten Realms are sort of similar, except there's a core that's what I see as the "normal" Realms (NW Faerûn). My understanding is that that's where Greenwood did most of his own gaming, and the outlying areas were later additions, which is why they're sometimes a fairly poor fit.