The Wall of Force is essentially a glass bubble that can't be broken. You can see targets through it, but you're subject to the targeting rule: To target a creature, object or point of origin yuou must have a clear path to that target. So, you are looking for spells that either ignore the cover restriction for targeting, or that do not have a target at all. Additionally, a spell’s effect expands in straight lines from the point of origin. If no unblocked straight line extends from the point of origin to a location within the area of effect, that location isn’t included in the spell’s area.
Sacred Flame is one spell that can target through a Wall of Force due to the clause in the final sentence. The target gains no benefit from cover for the saving throw. This has been explicitly confirmed by Jeremy Crawford. It is a bit difficult for a wizard to cast this spell, but interestingly a paladin (Oath of Redemption of 17th level with the Blessed Warrior Fighting Style) can pull this trick off. For the wizards, you're generally going to be looking at multiclass, homebrew/3rd party (Mystic Theurge), the new Divinely Favored feat, Spell Sniper (Cleric), etc...
I've seen arguments that Raulothim's Psychic Lance should also bypasses the restriction. The argument is based upon the idea that if you utter the creature's name, the creature just becomes the target without using the normal rules for targeting. However, I consider that a stretch, and even if true, the spell describes the psychic energy as coming from your forehead in a shimmering lance, so I consider this a loser as well - but your DM has grounds to rule otherwise, even if weak grounds.
Detect Thoughts is range self, so it works on you. From there, it can be argued that you can use it to read the surface thoughts of creatures within 30 feet of you. The spell says you can read the surface thoughts of a creature you can see, but does not require you to target them - for surface thoughts. To probe deeper you need to target them clearly. However, I believe this runs afoul fo the 'unblocked straight line' requirement for the effect of a spell. However, there have been some debates there. Regardless, it is concentration so there is difficulty there in having 2 concentrartion spells.
Gift of Gab also theoretically does not require the targeting rules and is range self, but is range 5'. Again, the unblocked straight line requirement seems to prohibit this to me.